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Mitochondrial DNA Sequences

To submit unpublished mtDNA variant data to an online database, please contact at MSeqDR. To submit sequences to GenBank, use the BankIt tool. (We pull sequences from GenBank 3-4 times a year to add to Mitomap's database.) To submit published articles to Mitomap, please send a PDF to

Reference Current # Seqs Sequences available
Mitomap's variants

45,494 (FL)

69,730 (CR)
GenBank FL ID set (Click to download text file of the current GenBank IDs in our set of full-length sequences.)

GenBank CR ID set (Click to download text file of the current GenBank IDs in our set of control region sequences.)

Searching for human mtDNA sequences in GenBank?
  • To search for complete or near-complete sequences, click: Execute Search
    (includes sequences ≥15.4 kb)

  • To search for Control Region sequences: Execute Search
    (includes sequences 0.4-1.6kb containing all or part of the Control Region)

>45,000 (FL)

>70,000 (CR)

A FASTA file of these sequences may be downloaded by executing the search shown to the left. On the results page, use the "Send To" drop-down to download a FASTA file to your computer. sequence archive updated 18 Feb 2016 24,275 Phylotree database of sequences
Andrews, R. M., Kubacka, I., Chinnery, P. F., Lightowlers, R. N., Turnbull, D. M. and Howell, N. (1999). "Reanalysis and revision of the Cambridge reference sequence for human mitochondrial DNA". Nature Genetics 23(2):147.

Anderson, S., Bankier, A. T., Barrell, B. G., de Bruijn, M. H., Coulson, A. R., Drouin, J., Eperon, I. C., Nierlich, D. P., Roe, B. A., Sanger, F., Schreier, P. H., Smith, A. J., Staden, R. and Young, I. G. (1981). "Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome". Nature 290(5806):457-465.
1 rCRS.fasta: the "Revised Cambridge Reference Sequence"

See also the rCRS info page
Behar, D. M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogvali, E.-L., Silva, N. M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). "A "Copernican" reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root". American Journal of Human Genetics 90(4):675-684. 1 RSRS.fasta: the "Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence"
Annunen-Rasila, J., Finnila, S., Mykkanen, K., Moilanen, J. S., Veijola, J., Poyhonen, M., Viitanen, M., Kalimo, H. and Majamaa, K. (2006). "Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and mutation rate in patients with CADASIL." Neurogenetics 7(3):185-194. 77 Coding region sequences (NCBI)
nt. pos. 577-16023
Zip archive (Phylotree)
Kim, S. K., Gignoux, C. R., Wall, J. D., Lum-Jones, A., Wang, H., Haiman, C. A., Chen, G. K., Henderson, B. E., Kolonel, L. N., Le Marchand, L., Stram, D. O., Saxena, R. and Cheng, I. (2012). "Population genetic structure and origins of Native Hawaiians in the multiethnic cohort study" PLoS ONE 7(11):e47881. 160 FASTA file, zipped from author
Kivisild, T., Shen, P., Wall, D. P., Do, B., Sung, R., Davis, K., Passarino, G., Underhill, P. A., Scharfe, C., Torroni, A., Scozzari, R., Modiano, D., Coppa, A., de Knijff, P., Feldman, M., Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. and Oefner, P. J. (2006). "The role of selection in the evolution of human mitochondrial genomes."   Genetics 172(1):373-387. 277 Coding region sequences (NCBI)
nt. pos. 436-16021
Zip archive (Phylotree)
Topic revision: r13 - 22 May 2018, MarieLott
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